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Le discours du Caire du Président Barack Obama

We meet at a time of tension between the United States and Muslims around the world – tension rooted in historical forces that go beyond any current policy debate. The relationship between Islam and the west includes centuries of co-existence and co-operation, but also conflict and religious wars. More recently, tension has been fed by colonialism that denied rights and opportunities to many Muslims, and a cold war in which Muslim-majority countries were too often treated as proxies without regard to their own aspirations. Moreover, the sweeping change brought by modernity and globalisation led many Muslims to view the west as hostile to the traditions of Islam.

Violent extremists have exploited these tensions in a small but potent minority of Muslims. The attacks of September 11 2001 and the continued efforts of these extremists to engage in violence against civilians has led some in my country to view Islam as inevitably hostile not only to America and western countries, but also to human rights. This has bred more fear and mistrust.

So long as our relationship is defined by our differences, we will empower those who sow hatred rather than peace, and who promote conflict rather than the co-operation that can help all of our people achieve justice and prosperity. This cycle of suspicion and discord must end.

I have come here to seek a new beginning between the United States and Muslims around the world; one based upon mutual interest and mutual respect; and one based upon the truth that America and Islam are not exclusive, and need not be in competition. Instead, they overlap, and share common principles – principles of justice and progress; tolerance and the dignity of all human beings.

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De l’après-Huntington à l’interculturel ? ( 1 )

par Issa Asgarally

Avant de répondre à ces questions, cruciales pour l’avenir du monde, il faudrait dégager et analyser les idées essentielles de ce discours adressé  au « monde arabo-musulman ». Mais d’abord un bref rappel de la théorie de Huntington.

Que dit Huntington ? Avec la fin de la guerre froide marquée par l’implosion du communisme, les guerres seront désormais civilisationnelles. » A partir de six caractéristiques particulières, il identifie les “sept civilisations majeures d’hier et d’aujourd’hui: les civilisations chinoise, japonaise, hindoue, musulmane, occidentale, d’Amérique latine et africaine. Comme j’ai tenté de le démontrer dans mon essai « L’interculturel ou la guerre » (2005 ), un examen minutieux de cette identification et de ces caractéristiques met rapidement au jour des incertitudes, des contradictions, pour dire le moins, surprenantes : utilisation d’un terme générique pour désigner de vastes aires géographiques aux cultures variées, incertitude totale sur le plan purement historique, application des mots “culture commune” à des pays“multiethniques et pluriculturels”, caractérisation consistant à nommer certaines civilisations selon des religions  et d’autres selon une aire géographique restreinte.

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